I am only aware of two examples of this. As the Wikipedia article points out there are a number of reasons for the creation of such surnames, and these two examples seem to have different reasons.
This seems to have started with the name Gotham given as a middle name, and then evolved into part of a double-barrelled name.
In 1824 Ann Gotham
of Teignmouth married William Potter. They gave the name Gotham as a second Christian name to four of their seven children. At least 2 of the 4 died in infancy, and I have found no offspring of the other two. But one who did not himself have the name Gotham, Joseph John POTTER, emigrated to New Zealand and all of his six children had Go(a)tham as a middle name.
All six grew up and married, 5 appear to have had children, and 3 seem to have passed on Go(a)tham as a Christian name to their children, including a daughter so it is found with surnames other than Potter.
A fourth looks to have passed the name on, not as a Christian name, but rather as part of the surname: Gotham-Potter. (It may be that some of the other members of the family consider they have a double barrelled surname, but without a hyphen this is not clear and so mis-indexed as NNN Gotham POTTER)
This seems to have started with an attempt to incorporate Margaret BOWEN's
son Arthur BOWEN, in the family when his mother married his step-father. It has been used somewhat inconsistently. The mother's death was registered with the name, but the step-father just as a Gotham, and the half-brother was simply a Gotham.
Since Arthur only had a daughter it looks like it will be (or has been) a short-lived name.